Speakers produce sound! You already know that, but do you know how they work? This article will guide you through a conceptual overview of how speakers convert an electrical signal into sound. No matter what you are told, no matter how pretty they look, no matter how fancy of words people use, speakers just make sound. Although the explanation of what they do is simple, how speakers work, and how to make them work well, can be extremely complicated.
Sound is a phrase that typically refers to frequencies that the human ear can hear 20Hz ,Hz. When an object moves or vibrates, it transmits the kinetic energy to the air particles around it. The most common analogy for this is to visualize waves in water. Frequency is the word we use to describe the length of a single wave. The frequency is affected by the speed of vibration of the sound-creating object.
Slower vibrations equate to lower-frequency sounds. Faster vibrations make higher-frequency sounds. As stated above, the human ear can hear frequencies from 20Hz to 20,Hz 20kHZ. When the frequency is up near 20kHz, we hear high-pitched sounds we commonly call Treble. We call the middle ground frequencies Midrange. Those of us who are fortunate enough to be able to hear most of these frequencies know that we are surrounded by sounds at all times; the world is a noisy place.
Humans are capable of creating sounds in many ways. Most of us can make sound with our vocal cords. Babies cry for their parents, children bang on plates, teenagers scream at their parents, and some of us use our knowledge of science to create eqiupment that can reproduce sound; speakers! We are all deeply connected to sound in many ways. Knowledge of how we create sound, and incororate it into our daily lives, will help you notice phenomena that you never knew were there.
A speaker's function is fairly simple. A speaker converts electrical signals into acoustical energy: sound. By moving back and forth, the speaker increases and decreases the air pressure in front of it thus creating sound waves. Below is a basic diagram of a speaker. As you can see, there are not many parts.
However, minimal variations in each component can have dramatic effect on the speaker's performance. The cone is the main moving mass of the speaker. The larger the cone, the more mass and surface area a speaker will have. The more surface area a speaker has, the more air it can move.When the electrical current flowing through the voice coil changes direction, the coil's polar orientation reverses.
The voice coil is a basic electromagnet. If you've read How Electromagnets Workthen you know that an electromagnet is a coil of wire, usually wrapped around a piece of magnetic metal, such as iron. Running electrical current through the wire creates a magnetic field around the coil, magnetizing the metal it is wrapped around.
The field acts just like the magnetic field around a permanent magnet: It has a polar orientation -- a "north" end and and a "south" end -- and it is attracted to iron objects. But unlike a permanent magnet, in an electromagnet you can alter the orientation of the poles.
If you reverse the flow of the current, the north and south ends of the electromagnet switch. This is exactly what a stereo signal does -- it constantly reverses the flow of electricity. If you've ever hooked up a stereo system, then you know that there are two output wires for each speaker -- typically a black one and a red one.
Essentially, the amplifier is constantly switching the electrical signal, fluctuating between a positive charge and a negative charge on the red wire.
Since electrons always flow in the same direction between positively charged particles and negatively charged particles, the current going through the speaker moves one way and then reverses and flows the other way. This alternating current causes the polar orientation of the electromagnet to reverse itself many times a second. Prev NEXT. Making Sound: Voice Coil. The wire that runs through the speaker system connects to two hook-up jacks on the driver.
This content is not compatible on this device.Click on the image to enlarge it or click here for the Adobe. The resistance value comes from a long coil of wire inside each speaker called a voice coil. A voice coil is a coil of wire that, when placed inside a magnetic field, makes the speaker move and produce sound when driven by an amplifier. Speakers contain a long wound loop of wire called a voice coil.
This increases the amount of stress and heat it has to handle. For example, connecting a 4 ohm speaker to an amplifier that is labeled as working with 8 ohm speakers would mean it would have to produce double the electrical current to the speaker!
The recommended speaker impedance ratings are usually listed above the speaker wire posts. A home stereo, for example, may often list ohms as being ok for use.
Also, attempting to wire two 8 ohm speakers in parallel to an 8 ohm stereo would have the same effect. Two 8 ohm speakers in parallel is equal to 4 ohms total that the amp will see. They ended up with a burned-out amplifier. An amplifier can only handle so much heat and stress before it fails, so be sure to observe these rules. Be sure you wire speakers to meet the minimum Ohm rating you need. Speakers are different than other devices in that they work using alternating current AC instead of direct current DC.
This is good news! As I mentioned, speakers work by moving a cone back and forth in order to produce sound. The result is a strange and poor sounding stereo. When speakers are wired the opposite of each other sound waves cancel out. When wired the same, sound waves add together for more sound.
Speakers that are wired differently sound poor because much of the sound is canceled out. So the most important thing here to remember is to wire speakers consistently the same way as each other.
The job of a crossover also called a passive crossoverbecause it use basic capacitors and inductors rather than electronics is to restrict the music production each speaker tries to produce. Unlike standard separate speakers, 2-way and 3-way speakers that have a crossover can only be used in parallel and not in series. This is because unlike separate speakers with no crossovers, in this case, many sounds will be filtered out.
What this means is that little to no sound would be produced if another 2-way speaker is connected in series.
In some cases, more speakers can be added to increase the amount of volume you can get or to place speakers in more rooms, more locations in your vehicle, and so on. You also may have wondered what would happen if you bought an amplifier with twice the power of your present one. It increases a few decibels dB for each speaker added.
How Speakers Work
This is because of how the human ear works and the physics of sound, along with how speakers work and how much volume they can produce for a given amount of power. Generally speaking, the human ear will hear a very small amount of volume increase for each doubling of acoustic power: about 3 decibels dB.
For most people, the small amount of volume increase you notice when turning up a volume knob 1 notch is somewhere around 3dB. It increases it a very small amount as far as your ears are concerned.
Most people need an amplifier that can produce enough volume to fill a room or vehicle and turn up the volume from time to time. I like to use 50W or higher per channel as a good rule of thumb when buying an amplifier.
Have questions, comments, or suggestions? Be sure to leave a comment below or send me a message.
Confused about tweeters? Thanks very much Marty you as an expert explained yourself clearly so as even a 73 year old I could replace the wiring correctly on my home stereo system.When the electrical current flowing through the voice coil changes direction, the coil's polar orientation reverses.
This changes the magnetic forces between the voice coil and the permanent magnetmoving the coil and attached diaphragm back and forth. So how does the fluctuation make the speaker coil move back and forth? The electromagnet is positioned in a constant magnetic field created by a permanent magnet. These two magnets -- the electromagnet and the permanent magnet -- interact with each other as any two magnets do.
The positive end of the electromagnet is attracted to the negative pole of the permanent magnetic field, and the negative pole of the electromagnet is repelled by the permanent magnet's negative pole. When the electromagnet's polar orientation switches, so does the direction of repulsion and attraction. In this way, the alternating current constantly reverses the magnetic forces between the voice coil and the permanent magnet. This pushes the coil back and forth rapidly, like a piston. When the coil moves, it pushes and pulls on the speaker cone.
This vibrates the air in front of the speaker, creating sound waves. The electrical audio signal can also be interpreted as a wave. The frequency and amplitude of this wave, which represents the original sound wave, dictates the rate and distance that the voice coil moves. This, in turn, determines the frequency and amplitude of the sound waves produced by the diaphragm. Different driver sizes are better suited for certain frequency ranges. For this reason, loudspeaker units typically divide a wide frequency range among multiple drivers.
In the next section, we'll find out how speakers divide up the frequency range, and we'll look at the main driver types used in loudspeakers. Prev NEXT.
Making Sound: Magnets.Speaker Loads and Wiring. Amplifiers are designed to power a specific "load", meaning a speaker or set of speakers having a specific "AC impedance" measured in ohms. Impedance resists the flow of electric current so the higher the speaker impedance the less current the amplifier has to supply. Conversely, the lower the impedance the more current must be supplied.
In other words, a low impedance speaker is a big workload for your amp and a high impedance speaker is a small load. To push more air, several speakers always of equal impedance can be wired together in a cabinet. The cabinet impedance depends on how the speakers are wired and may differ from the impedance of the speakers. Wiring diagrams and their effect on cabinet impedance are displayed below.
An amp works best when driving a load with the same impedance as the amplifier's "output impedance". If they don't match, there could be consequences:. Speakers and cabinets should also be marked with an ohms value. If not, you can easily measure the value with a multimeter:.
However, the two values correlate. The DC resistance is somewhat lower than the AC impedance so round up the meter reading to the closest of 4, 8, or 16 ohms. Some amps have an impedance selector switch on the rear panel that you can use to match its output impedance to different speaker impedances. Changing the speaker impedance is one of the easiest and most dramatic ways to change the sound of a guitar amp.
Otherwise, the amp's output transformer can easily be damaged, especially if you're playing through it. There are two ways you can connect two speakers. Wiring two speakers in series doubles the impedance of one speaker. Wiring two speakers in parallel halves the impedance of one speaker. Wiring four speakers in series quadruples the impedance of one speaker. Wiring four speakers in parallel quarters the impedance of one speaker.
A third way to connect four speakers is called "series-parallel" wiring. It puts a pair of series-wired speakers in parallel with another pair of series-wired speakers. The combined impedance matches that of one speaker.This time out, he'll have another full week of practice under his belt and that increased comfort level could translate to 300-plus yards and a couple of scores.
James Koh: Rex Burkhead, for the third week in a row, will score two touchdownsThe Patriots should control this game versus Miami pretty handily and Burkhead has become a staple in this offense.
Big lead, running back, you do the math. Miami has given up the fifth-most fantasy points to running backs over the last four weeks and while most are expecting a good game from Sexy Rexy in the Flexy, I'm boldly predicting a massive game to the tune of 100-plus total yards and two total touchdowns. Michael Fabiano: Fabiano: Russell Wilson will score 18 or more fantasy points in Jacksonville. This might not seem that bold, but the Jaguars haven't allowed a single quarterback to hit the 18-point mark in standard scoring leagues this season.
That could have some fantasy fans worried about Wilson's prospects, but let's take a look at some of the signal-callers who have faced Jacksonville. Joe Flacco and Ryan Mallett.
Josh McCown (before he was putting up huge numbers). Blaine Gabbert (and he scored 17. Their defense simply hasn't faced a quarterback of Wilson's skill set, and he's the highest-scoring player in fantasy football. Wilson might not give you 30 fantasy points, but he won't give you a stinker, either. Cynthia Frelund: Marshawn Lynch is a top-10 running back this week. I know Chiefs' cornerback Marcus Peters isn't playing and Raiders' wideouts Michael Crabtree and potentially even Amari Cooper could both return.
However, in addition to being vulnerable to the pass, the Chiefs defense has also given up the most rushes of 10-plus and the second-most rushes of four-plus yards. I'm not saying receivers in this game aren't a good choice, but I don't think that means it's not a ground-heavy game script. Adam Rank: Rank: DeShone Kizer finishes as a Top-11 quarterback nfl. But how about a little love for his quarterback, DeShone Kizer.
He's showing some signs. The completion percentage is low. It's somewhere in the neighborhood of Mike Trout's batting average (And how about Shohei Ohtani joining that loaded team. I can't want to see how fantasy baseball handles a guy who pitches and bats).Thanks for sharing a future feature. Just come across your website, this is the sort of facebook advertising tips i wanted to hear, thanks.
The Speaker Wiring Diagram And Connection Guide – The Basics You Need To Know
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